List available packages from one repository

For dnf

dnf list available --disablerepo=* --enablerepo=reponame

For dpkg (low-level package manager for apt)

ff() { for file in /etc/apt/sources.list.d/$1.list; do grep -iE "Package:" "/var/lib/apt/lists/$( cut -d' ' -f2 "${file}" | sed -r -e 'sX\/X_Xg;' -e 's/\<http.__//g;')Packages"; done; }
ff reponame

The story

For some reason it is harder to manage packages with apt: This is a main reason I don’t like to use it. I had to go write this crazy one-liner function to accomplish the same task that dnf provides with just two flags.
Also, the apt command here shows all the packages from that repository, regardless of its installed state. The dnf command will show only the ones available that are not already installed.


Update yum repo with an easy script

Similar to how you can Build an apt repository on CentOS and update it with new packages with a simple script, you can do the same with a yum rpm repository.

cat <<'EOFUPDATE' > ./

# working directory
cd ${repodir}
chmod 0644 *rpm 1>/dev/null 2>&1

# create the package index
createrepo .
chmod u+x ./

Building an apt repository on CentOS

Apt is a dpkg management tool used by Debian and its offpsring, particularly Ubuntu and Linux Mint.
CentOS is from the RHEL/Fedora side of the Linux family tree and uses yum (and dnf nowadays).
Making a simple, signed apt repository on centos (or manually, on any system really) is possible. This is how to do it.

Building an apt repository

So you have packages you want to make available for your LAN or wherever. This document will show you how to make a directory with all the right parts for an apt repository that is gpg-signed (to stave off that annoying “Do you trust the source?” question).

Preparing gpg keys

Note: generating new keys can require some time orand entropy generation.

# as root; no sudo!
gpg --gen-key

The first time you run gpg –gen-key, break it after it has generated some directories and files.
Add the SHA256 requirement to the gpg conf.

cat <<'EOF' >> ~/.gnupg/gpg.conf
cert-digest-algo SHA256
digest-algo SHA256

Reference: Weblink 3
Run gpg again and this time follow the prompts to generate a key.

gpg --gen-key

If you need to generate extra entropy, consider running some mundane tasks in another terminal.

while true; do dd if=/dev/sda of=/dev/zero; find / | xargs file >/dev/null 2>&1; done

Just break it off when you get the gpg keys you need.
Export the keys as needed with these commands.

gpg --list-keys
# take the key name shown and do this:
gpg --output debian-repo-public.gpg --armor --export 123456AB
gpg --output debian-repo-private.gpg --armor --export-secret-key 123456AB

So the end state of this section is to have the public key as a file, preferably in the repository directory.

Installing required packages

Install epel-release which wil lget you the dpkg-dev and tar packages you need (just in case tar isn’t on your system).

yum –y install epel-release
yum –y install dpkg-dev tar

Building the repository building script

Make a script that automates building the Release and Package files.

cat <<'EOFSH' >${updatescript}

# working directory
cd ${repodir}

# create the package index
dpkg-scanpackages -m . > Packages
cat Packages | gzip -9c > Packages.gz

# create the Release file
PKGS=$(wc -c Packages)
PKGS_GZ=$(wc -c Packages.gz)
cat <<EOF > Release
Architectures: all
Date: \$(date -R)
 $(md5sum Packages  | cut -d" " -f1) $PKGS
 $(md5sum Packages.gz  | cut -d" " -f1) $PKGS_GZ
 $(sha1sum Packages  | cut -d" " -f1) $PKGS
 $(sha1sum Packages.gz  | cut -d" " -f1) $PKGS_GZ
 $(sha256sum Packages | cut -d" " -f1) $PKGS
 $(sha256sum Packages.gz | cut -d" " -f1) $PKGS_GZ
gpg -abs -o Release.gpg Release
chmod 755 ${updatescript}

It might be useful to modify the script to chmod 444 *.deb or something similar.
When running the script, make sure you use the correct key to sign the release file. Note that this script calls gpg, which will interactively ask the user to enter the passphrase for the key.

Managing the repository

The repository is ready to receive files and be updated.
The example location is /mnt/mirror/ubuntu/example-debian/.

Adding packages to the repo

Move any .deb packages you want to the repo directory.
Run the update-repo script form root (because the gpg keys were generated as root).


Provide the passphrase.

Configuring a client

For each system you want to add the repository to, you need to follow these steps.
Import the public key into apt and add the repo to the sources.

sudo wget --quiet -O /root/example-debian.gpg
sudo apt-key add /root/example-debian.gpg	
sudo wget --quiet -O /etc/apt/sources.list.d/example-debian.list

Update the available package list.

apt-get update

The system is now ready to install packages from your repository.


  1. Main layout of entire document
  2. Manipulating gpg keys
  3. Using SHA256 for apt
  4. Extra information about debian repos
  5. Discussion of various debian repo utilities
  6. Alternate method for making a repo
  7. How to make a super simple, unsigned repo