Insert character by decimal value
In insert mode, press CTRL+V. While still pressing CTRL, type in the 3-digit decimal number of the character (for me, the numpad did not work).
Insert character by two-character approximation
To insert the cent character, in insert mode press CTRL+K, c | (C and then pipe). You can see the rest of the available characters with :help digraphs.
View character info
To view the character information for the character under the cursor in command mode, press ga.